Vaginal washes from 55 women were investigated by means of an ELISA method for the presence of IgE antibodies against Candidaalbicans. These antibodies were detected in 87.1 % of patients with clinical acute vulvovaginal candidiasis (group I), 100% of patients with suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis but negative by microscopy and culture (group II), 0% of asymptomatic carriers (group III) and 33.3% of uninfected controls (group IV). Statistically significant differences were observed comparing groups I and II vs. groups III and IV. The highest IgE vaginal antibody titers were mostly at the expense of serotype A C albicans strains, which represented 83.3% of the C. albicans isolates. Non-C. albicans species also showed very low IgE levels. No correlation between serum and vaginal IgE was found. Furthermore, a second determination of vaginal IgE levels was performed in 3 patients. A decrease in IgE levels concomitant to a decline in clinical symptoms was observed in all of them after treatment.